Population: 27 million
was an implaccable foe of the French
Revolution due to both its innate conservatism and the
fact that one of its princesses, Marie
Antoinette, had been executed by the new rulers of France.
Francis I was also fearful that the myriad nationalities
under his rule - Germans, Hungarians, Croats, Romanians,
Slovaks, Serbs, Italians and Dutch - would follow France's
lead and throw off Austrian rule.
could command a huge army, but its old ways of fighting
were continually found wanting against France.
Major reforms brought initial success at Aspern-Essling
in 1809 - Napoleon Bonaparte's
first setback - but it wasn't until the 1813
Campaign in Germany that Austria was prepared enough
to match the French.