The Second Coalition (2)
1798 to 1801
the Russians at Zurich, Massena routed General Alexander
Korsakov's troops effectively won control of Switzerland
from the Allies.
the Netherlands, the Allied efforts were hampered by poor
supply lines and worse co-operation. The Duke of York's
forces were halted twice within a fortnight at Bergen and
a third poor result at Castricum on 6 October had the commander
reassessing the campaign. When the prime target for the
invasion - the Dutch fleet - fell into French hands, he
abandonned the venture.
who was sick of the war was Tsar
Paul I, who gave up on being part of the coalition.
a more dangerous thing occurred on 9-10 November 1799. The
returning General Bonaparte staged the Coup de Brumaire,
ending the Directory and setting
the stage for his own, new vision, for France.
of Bonaparte's first aims was to regain the territories
lost in Italy. Only Massena remained on Italian soil, and
he was locked in an under-siege Genoa.
the Austrians forcing French forces through Nice on the
Cote d'Ázur, Bonaparte decided on a daring campaign
that would see his army cross the Alps and, hopefully, surprise
the enemy and cut them off from their homeland.
Austrian commander, General
Michael Melas, quickly pulled his men back to face the
new threat. The only good news he received was that of the
surrender of Massena.
was, however, the beginning of a dire period for Austria.
An Austrian army was beaten at Montebello by General
Jean Lannes, but the situation almost worked in Melas'
favour as an overconfident Bonaparte stretched his forces
too far and walked into the Austrian commander's full force
It was almost a battle of two halves as first the Austrians
had the decisive edge, then the arrival of General
Louis Desaix and reinforcements swung it entirely in
The ensuing rout destroyed Austria's army in Italy and any
hopes for the Second Coalition.
the German theatre, Moreau beat the Austrians at Stockach,
Moskirch, Ulm and Hochstadt - a series of defeats that led
to the replacement of General Paul Kray with the Archduke
last major battle of the Second Coalition was at Hohenlinden
where the Austrians again were decisively beaten.
French forces advancing on Vienna from several directions
the Austrians sued for peace and signed the Treaty