close to Napoleon during his
early successes, Louis served with his brother in Italy
and Egypt, fighting at Caldiero,
Arcola and Rivoli.
1805, he was given command of the French troops in Holland and within
a year was crowned king of that nation.
fought the British during the Walcheren expedition and took a real
interest in his adopted country's welfare.
brought about a split with Napoleon over the Continental System
of trade and he gave up his crown in 1810.
then travelled Europe before retiring in Italy.
had one marriage, an arranged and unhappy one with Napoleon's step-daughter