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Louis Bonaparte

King of Holland

Very close to Napoleon during his early successes, Louis served with his brother in Italy and Egypt, fighting at Caldiero, Arcola and Rivoli.

In 1805, he was given command of the French troops in Holland and within a year was crowned king of that nation.

He fought the British during the Walcheren expedition and took a real interest in his adopted country's welfare.

This brought about a split with Napoleon over the Continental System of trade and he gave up his crown in 1810.

Louis then travelled Europe before retiring in Italy.

He had one marriage, an arranged and unhappy one with Napoleon's step-daughter Hortense Beauharnais.

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